Time to stop playing

No game studies on a dead planet





Games, patriarchy, imperialism, fascism, crises, capitalism, white supremacy, global warming, climate change, border, immigrants, games industry, video games, surveillance, military, police, prison, game development, academia


This article highlights the interrelated crises that the games industry, its digital game consumers, and the academic field of game studies are embedded in and responsible for reproducing. By couching our analysis in Marxist, feminist, anti-fascist, and anti-imperialist understandings of how our social relations arise from the historical-material basis of society, we identify several different conditions of modern digital games that everyone working in and around games should confront and take seriously, especially regarding contemporary and future impacts and restrictions on the type of research and education we are able to conduct. These crises emerge from social and economic structures including imperialism, racism, militarism, fascism, and patriarchy. To better confront them, we broadly define the causes from which the morbid symptoms we witness arise in primarily Western societies and how they manifest in the games industry, its consumers, and its academic institutions. Based off these aspects, we extrapolate their trajectory in how they will change and adapt to the future of games and of their study, as the ecological and social crises intensify and reverberate. This allows us to propose potential strategies for radically confronting and potentially overcoming the looming crises related to war, patriarchy, white supremacy, famine, destitution, fascism, and climate apocalypse.

Author Biographies

Emil L. Hammar, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

Emil Lundedal Hammar (PhD) is a postdoctoral researcher at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. His research expertise intersects between game studies, political economy, critical race theory, and cultural memory studies, where his doctoral thesis addressed how digital games, race, colonialism, and political economy intertwine to reinforce dominant hegemonic understandings of the past. His current research focuses on labor conditions, gender diversity, and platformization in the Nordic game industries.

Carolyn Jong

Carolyn Jong is a labour organizer and game developer. She graduated from Concordia University with a PhD in Humanities in 2020, where her research focused on GamerGate and the Alt-Right in connection with capitalist crisis. She has been an active participant in anti-fascist, feminist, and labour organizing for many years, and is a founding member of Game Workers Unite Montréal.

Joachim Despland-Lichtert

Joachim Despland-Lichtert currently works as a game developer in Montréal and teaches at Concordia University. He is a founding member of Game Workers Unite Montréal and has been organizing around labour and social justice issues both inside and outside the games industry for many years.


Abraham, B. J. (2022). Digital games after climate change. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-91705-0

Ajl, M. (2021). A people’s Green New Deal. Pluto Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1p3xjwp

Ali, T. (2018). The extreme centre: A second warning (Revised ed.). Verso.

Amin, S. (2018). Modern imperialism, monopoly finance capital, and Marx’s law of value. Monthly Review Press.

Baeza-González, S. (2021). Video games development in the periphery: Cultural dependency? Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 103(1), 39–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/04353684.2021.1894077 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/04353684.2021.1894077

Baldwin, D. L. (2021). In the shadow of the ivory tower: How universities are plundering our cities. Bold Type Books.

Bjørkelo, K., Juvrud, J., Garda, M. B., & Jørgensen, I. K. H. (2023). The future of game studies in the Nordic region. Panel presented at the 2023 Nordic DiGRA conference, Uppsala, Sweden.

Brand, U., & Wissen, M. (2021). The imperial mode of living: Everyday life and the ecological crisis of capitalism. Verso Books.

Bulut, E. (2020). A precarious game: The illusion of dream jobs in the video game industry. ILR Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7591/cornell/9781501746529.001.0001

Bulut, E. (2021). White masculinity, creative desires, and production ideology in video game development. Games and Culture, 16(3), 329–341. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412020939873 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412020939873

Butt, M.-A., de Wildt, L., Kowert, R., & Sandovar, A. (2018). Homo includens: Surveying DiGRA’s diversity. Transactions of the Digital Games Research Association, 4(1), 67–104. https://doi.org/10.26503/todigra.v4i1.85 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26503/todigra.v4i1.85

Carpenter, N. (2023, January 8). The game studios changing the industry by unionizing. Polygon. https://www.polygon.com/gaming/23538801/video-game-studio-union-microsoft-activision-blizzard

Chang, A. Y. (2019). Playing nature: Ecology in video games. University of Minnesota Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5749/j.ctvthhd94

Chang, E. Y., Gray, K. L., & Bird, A. (2022). Playing difference: Towards a games of colour pedagogy. In S. Flynn & M. A. Marotta (Eds.), Critical pedagogy, race, and media: Diversity and inclusion in higher education teaching. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003222835-8

Chatterjee, P., & Maira, S. (Eds.). (2014). The imperial university: Academic repression and scholarly dissent. Minnesota Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5749/minnesota/9780816680894.001.0001

Chen, S., & Wu, C. (2021). #StopAsianHate: Understanding the global rise of anti-Asian racism from a transcultural communication perspective. Journal of Transcultural Communication, 1(1), 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1515/jtc-2021-2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jtc-2021-2002

Chess, S., & Consalvo, M. (2022). The future of media studies is game studies. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 39(3), 159–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2022.2075025 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2022.2075025

Condis, M. (2018). Gaming masculinity: Trolls, fake geeks, and the gendered battle for online culture. University of Iowa Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/book59648

Cope, Z. (2015). Divided world, divided class: Global political economy and the stratification of labour under capitalism (2nd ed.). Kersplebedeb.

Cote, A. C. (2020). Gaming sexism: Gender and identity in the era of casual videogames. New York University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18574/nyu/9781479838523.001.0001

Cox, J. (2022, January 24). Unity made a dogfight simulation for the air force’s ‘kill chain’ branch. Vice. https://www.vice.com/en/article/xgdv8q/unity-dogfight-simulation-air-force-kill-chain

Davis, S., & Ness, I. (Eds.). (2021). Sanctions as war: Anti-imperialist perspectives on American geo-economic strategy. Brill. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004501201

Desatoff, S. (2020, January 16). Call of Duty dominates NPD’s list of the best-selling games of the decade. GameDaily. https://www.gamedaily.biz/call-of-duty-dominates-npds-list-of-the-best-selling-games-of-the-decade/

DICE. (2002). Battlefield 1942 [PC]. Electronic Arts.

Dyer-Witheford, N., & de Peuter, G. (2021). Postscript: Gaming while empire burns. Games and Culture, 16(3), 371–380. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412020954998 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412020954998

Ehrenreich, B., & Ehrenreich, J. (2013). Death of a yuppie dream: The rise and fall of the professional-managerial class. Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung.

Fickle, T. (2019). The race card: From gaming technologies to model minorities. NYU Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18574/nyu/9781479868551.001.0001

Foster, J. B. (2021). The new Cold War on China. Monthly Review, 73(3). https://monthlyreview.org/2021/07/01/the-new-cold-war-on-china/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-073-03-2021-07_1

Foster, J. B., & McChesney, R. W. (2012). The endless crisis: How monopoly-finance capital produces stagnation and upheaval from the USA to China. Monthly Review Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-064-01-2012-05_1

Freitas N., Vieira de, S., Sobral, M. F. F., Ribeiro, A. R. B., & da Luz Soares, G. B. (2020). Concepts and forms of greenwashing: A systematic review. Environmental Sciences Europe, 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-020-0300-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-020-0300-3

Frome, J., & Martin, P. (2019). Describing the game studies canon: A game citation analysis. Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix. http://www.digra.org/digital-library/publications/describing-the-game-studies-canon-a-game-citation-analysis/

Fron, J., Fullerton, T., Morie, J. F., & Pearce, C. (2007). The hegemony of play. Proceedings, DiGRA: Situated Play, Tokyo September 24–27, 2007. https://ict.usc.edu/pubs/The%20Hegemony%20of%20Play.pdf

Fuchs, C., & Qiu, J. L. (2018). Ferments in the field: Introductory reflections on the past, present and future of communication studies. Journal of Communication, 68(2), 219–232. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqy008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqy008

Game Worker Solidarity. (2021). Start Organising! Game Worker Solidarity. https://gameworkersolidarity.com/start-organising

Gault, M. (2020, October 20). Uncle Sam is looking for recruits—over Twitch. Wired. https://www.wired.com/story/military-gamer-recruitment-twitch/

González-Piñero, M. (2017). Redefining the value chain of the video games industry. Knowledge Works (National Centre for Cultural Industries). https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.35972.53129

Gordon, L. (2019, December 5). The environmental impact of a PlayStation 4. The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2019/12/5/20985330/ps4-sony-playstation-environmental-impact-carbon-footprint-manufacturing-25-anniversary

Grande, S., Tuck, E., & Yang, K. W. (2018). Refusing the university. In E. Tuck & K. Wayne Yang (Eds.), Toward what justice? (pp. 47–65). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351240932-4

Gray, K., & Chapple, R. (2017). #TenureTrackHustle: Examining academic poverty of First-generation women of color from an intersectional standpoint. Journal of Working-Class Studies, 2(2), 5–15. https://doi.org/10.13001/jwcs.v2i2.6079 DOI: https://doi.org/10.13001/jwcs.v2i2.6079

Gray, K. L. (2014). Race, gender, and deviance in Xbox live: Theoretical perspectives from the virtual margins. Routledge DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315721378

Grayson, N. (2021, September 17). Activision Blizzard lawsuit has video game workers using union tactics—but not unionizing. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/video-games/2021/09/17/activision-blizzard-riot-ubisoft-harassment-union/

Hammar, E. L. (2015). Ethical recognition of marginalized groups in digital games culture. Proceedings of the 2015 DiGRA International Conference. http://www.digra.org/digital-library/publications/ethical-recognition-of-marginalized-groups-in-digital-games-culture/

Hammar, E. L. (2019). Manufacturing consent in video games: The hegemonic memory politics of Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain. Nordlit, 42, 279–300. https://doi.org/10.7557/13.5016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7557/13.5016

Hammar, E. L. (2020). Imperialism and fascism intertwined: A materialist analysis of the games industry and reactionary gamers. Gamevironments, 13, 317–357. https://doi.org/10.26092/elib/409

Hammar, E. L. (2022). International solidarity between game workers in the Global North and Global South: Reflections on the challenges posed by labor aristocracy. Gamevironments, 17, 141–182. https://doi.org/10.48783/gameviron.v17i17.195

Hammar, E. L., & Woodcock, J. (2019). The political economy of wargames: The production of history and memory in military video games. In H. Pötzsch & P. Hammond (Eds.), War games: Memory, militarism and the subject of play (pp. 72–99). Bloomsbury Academic. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501351181.ch-004

Hartmann, T. (2017). The ‘moral disengagement in violent video games’ model. Game Studies, 17(2). http://gamestudies.org/1702/articles/hartmann

Harvey, A. (2019). Feminist interventions for better futures of digital games. In B. Beil, G. S. Freyermuth, & H. C. Schmidt (Eds.), Playing Utopia: Futures in digital games (pp. 211–234). Transcript Verlag. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783839450505-007

Harvey, A., & Fisher, S. (2015). “Everyone can make games!”: The post-feminist context of women in digital game production. Feminist Media Studies, 15(4), 576–592. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2014.958867 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2014.958867

Harvey, D. (2018). The limits to capital (Reprint ed.). Verso.

Heron, K. (2023). Capitalist catastrophism and eco-apartheid. Geoforum. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2023.103874 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2023.103874

Hickel, J. (2021). Less is more: How degrowth will save the world. Windmill Books.

Hickel, J. (2023). The double objective of democratic ecosocialism. Monthly Review, 75(4). https://monthlyreview.org/2023/09/01/the-double-objective-of-democra-tic-ecosocialism/

Höglund, J. (2008). Electronic empire: Orientalism revisited in the military shooter. Game Studies, 8(1). http://gamestudies.org/0801/articles/hoeglund

Infinity Ward. (2004). Call of Duty [PC]. Activision.

Jennings, S. C. (2022). Only you can save the world (of videogames): Authoritarian agencies in the heroism of videogame design, play, and culture. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 28(2), 320–344. https://doi.org/10.1177/13548565221079157 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/13548565221079157

Jin, D. Y. (2015). Digital platforms, imperialism and political culture. Routledge.

Jong, C. (2020). Bringing politics into it: Organizing at the intersection of videogames and academia. [Doctoral dissertation, Concordia University, Montreal]. https://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/id/eprint/986682/

Kafai, Y. B., Tynes, B. M., & Richard, G. T. (2016). Diversifying Barbie and Mortal Kombat: Intersectional perspectives and inclusive designs in gaming. ETC Press.

Keogh, B. (2018, July 10). Gamers and managers vs workers: The impossible (and gendered) standards imposed on game developers. Overland. https://overland.org.au/2018/07/gamers-and-managers-vs-workers-the-impossible-and-gendered-standards-imposed-on-game-developers/

Keogh, B., & Abraham, B. (2022). Challenges and opportunities for collective action and unionization in local games industries. Organization. https://doi.org/10.1177/13505084221082269 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/13505084221082269

Kerr, A. (2017). Global games: Production, circulation and policy in the networked era. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203704028

Kline, S., Dyer-Witheford, N., & Greig de Peuter, G. (2003). Digital play: The interaction of technology, culture, and marketing. McGill-Queen’s University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780773571068

Lean, Mr N. (2012). The Islamophobia industry: How the right manufactures fear of Muslims. Pluto Press.

Maher, C. (2020, February 13). A new wave of indies are using games to explore climate change. The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2020/2/13/21135321/video-games-climate-change-beyond-blue-bee-simulator-temtem-endling

Marx, K. (1845). Theses on Feuerbach. In Marx/Engels selected works (Vol. 1, pp. 13–15). Progress Publishers. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.htm

Marx, K. (1990). Capital, volume 1: A critique of political economy (E. Mandel, Trans.). Penguin Books.

Microsoft. (2023, May 18). Microsoft is committed to achieving zero carbon emissions and waste by 2030. CEE Multi-Country News Center. https://news.microsoft.com/en-cee/2023/05/18/microsoft-is-committed-to-achieving-zero-carbon-emissions-and-waste-by-2030/

Mirrlees, T., & Ibaid, T. (2021). The virtual killing of Muslims: Digital war games, Islamophobia, and the global war on terror. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 6(1), 33–51. https://doi.org/10.13169/islastudj.6.1.0033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.13169/islastudj.6.1.0033

Monserrate, S. G. (2022, January). The cloud is material: On the environmental impacts of computation and data storage. MIT Case Studies in Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Computing. https://doi.org/10.21428/2c646de5.031d4553 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21428/2c646de5.031d4553

Mukherjee, S. (2017). Videogames and postcolonialism: Empire plays back. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54822-7

Mukherjee, T. (2023). Videogame distribution and Steam’s imperialist practices: Platform coloniality in game distribution. Journal of Games Criticism. https://gamescriticism.org/2023/08/23/mukherjee-5-a/

Newzoo. (2023, September 29). Top public games companies by revenues. Newzoo. https://newzoo.com/resources/rankings/top-25-companies-game-revenues

Nieborg, D., Young, C. J., & Joseph, D. (2020). App imperialism: The political economy of the Canadian app store. Social Media + Society, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120933293 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120933293

Novet, J. (2021, March 31). Microsoft wins U.S. Army contract for augmented reality headsets, worth up to $21.9 billion over 10 years. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/03/31/microsoft-wins-contract-to-make-modified-hololens-for-us-army.html

OHCHR. (2022, January 27). Conflict-related civilian casualties as of 31 December 2021. United Nations Human Rights. https://ukraine.un.org/sites/default/files/2022-02/Conflict-relat-ed%20civilian%20casualties%20as%20of%2031%20December%202021%20%28rev%2027%20January%202022%29%20corr%20EN_0.pdf

OHCHR. (2023, November 16). Gaza: UN experts call on international community to prevent genocide against the Palestinian people. United Nations Human Rights. https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2023/11/gaza-un-experts-call-international-community-prevent-genocide-against

Patnaik, U., & Patnaik, P. (2021). Capital and imperialism: Theory, history, and the present. Monthly Review.

Patterson, C. B. (2020). Open world empire: Race, erotics, and the global rise of video games. NYU Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18574/nyu/9781479802043.001.0001

Poitra, C., Kolonich, A., Mitchell, E., Proctor, E., Shirley, A., Baier, A., & LaPensée, E. (2021). Reciprocal research: A guidebook to centering community in partnerships with Indigenous Nations. Michigan State University Native American Institute. https://www.canr.msu.edu/resources/reciprocal-research-guidebook-partnerships-indigenous-nations

Polansky, L. (2018, October 30). Worse than scabs: Gamer rage as anti-union violence. Rhizome. http://rhizome.org/editorial/2018/oct/30/worse-than-scabs-gamer-rager-as-anti-worker-violence/

Pötzsch, H. (2017). Selective realism: Filtering experiences of war and violence in first- and third-person shooters. Games and Culture, 12(2), 156–178. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412015587802 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412015587802

Pötzsch, H., & Hammond, P. (2016). Special issue - war/game: Studying relations between violent conflict, games, and play. Game Studies, 16(2). http://gamestudies.org/1602/articles/potzschhammond

Raven Software & Infinity Ward. (2020). Call of Duty: Warzone [PC]. Activision Blizzard.

Ripple, W. J., Wolf, C., Gregg, J. W., Rockström, J., Newsome, T. M., Law, B. E., Marques, L., Lenton, T. M., Xu, C., Huq, S., Simons, L., & King, S. D. A. (2023). The 2023 state of the climate report: Entering uncharted territory. BioScience. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biad080 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biad080

Rolf, S., & Schindler, S. (2023). The US–China rivalry and the emergence of state platform capitalism. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 55(5), 1255–1280. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X221146545 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X221146545

Ross, L. J. (2016). The color of choice: White supremacy and reproductive justice. In INCITE! Women of Color Against Violence (Eds.), Color of violence: The INCITE! anthology (pp. 53–66). Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822373445 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1220mvs.8

Ruffino, P., & Woodcock, J. (2020). Game workers and the empire: Unionisation in the UK video game industry. Games and Culture, 16(3), 317–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412020947096 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412020947096

Sajid, H. (2020, May 9). Call of Duty: Warzone’s Verdansk based on Donetsk. DownSights. https://www.downsights.com/call-of-duty-warzones-verdansk-based-donetsk/

Salter, A., & Blodgett, B. (2017). Toxic geek masculinity in media: Sexism, trolling, and identity policing. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66077-6

Salter, M. (2017). From geek masculinity to gamergate: The technological rationality of online abuse. Crime, Media, Culture, 14(2), 247–264. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741659017690893 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1741659017690893

Schoemann, S., & Asad, M. (2016). Design for the margins: Creating an inclusive space at different games conference. In Y. B. Kafai, G. T. Richard, & B. M. Tynes (Eds.), Diversifying Barbie and Mortal Kombat: Intersectional perspectives and inclusive designs in gaming (pp. 173–185). ETC Press.

Schulzke, M. (2017). Military videogames and the future of ideological warfare. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 19(3), 609–626. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117704173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117704173

Shaw, A. (2013). On not becoming gamers: Moving beyond the constructed audience. Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, 2. https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/26292/ada02-onnot-sha-2013.pdf?sequence=1

Sinclair, B. (2023, October 13). Activision Blizzard is officially part of Microsoft. GamesIndustry.Biz. https://www.gamesindustry.biz/activision-blizzard-is-officially-part-of-microsoft

Šisler, V. (2008). Digital Arabs: Representation in video games. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 11(2), 203–220. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549407088333 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549407088333

Slaughter, S., & Rhoades, G. (2009). Academic capitalism and the new economy: Markets, state, and higher education. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Smith, J. (2016). Imperialism in the twenty-first century: Globalization, super-exploitation, and capitalism’s final crisis. Monthly Review Press.

Sony Interactive Entertainment. (2023). PlayStation® & the environment | What we’re doing to reduce our global impact. PlayStation. https://www.playstation.com/en-dk/corporate/playstation-and-the-environment/

Srauy, S. (2017). Professional norms and race in the North American video game industry. Games and Culture, 14(5), 478–497. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412017708936 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412017708936

Suwandi, I. (2019). Value chains: The new economic imperialism. Monthly Review Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-070-10-2019-03_1

Taylor, N., & Voorhees, G. (2018). Introduction: Masculinity and gaming: Mediated masculinities in play. In N. Taylor & G. Voorhees (Eds.), Masculinities in play (pp. 1–19). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90581-5_1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90581-5_1

Thierry, A., Horn, L., von Hellermann, P., & Gardner, C. J. (2023). “No research on a dead planet”: Preserving the socio-ecological conditions for academia. Frontiers in Education, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2023.1237076 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2023.1237076

Thomsen, M. (2018, June 2). Made in China: Every new video game you love. The Outline. https://theoutline.com/post/3087/outsourcing-blockbuster-video-games-made-in-china-horizon-zero-dawn

Turnbull, J., Searle, A., Davies, O. H., Dodsworth, J., Chasseray-Peraldi, P., von Essen, E., & Anderson-Elliott, H. (2023). Digital ecologies: Materialities, encounters, governance. Progress in Environmental Geography, 2(1–2), 3–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/27539687221145698 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/27539687221145698

UNDESA. (2021). World social report 2021. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dspd/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2021/05/World-Social-Report-2021_web_FINAL.pdf

Walia, H. (2021). Border and rule: Global migration, capitalism, and the rise of racist nationalism. Haymarket Books.

Wells, G., Romhanyi, A., Reitman, J. G., Gardner, R., Squire, K., & Steinkuehler, C. (2023). Right-wing extremism in mainstream games: A review of the literature. Games and Culture. https://doi.org/10.1177/15554120231167214 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/15554120231167214

Weststar, J., & Legault, M.-J. (2017). Why might a videogame developer join a union? Labor Studies Journal, 42(4), 295–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/0160449X17731878 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0160449X17731878

Wood, J. (2022, March 7). Is the CHIPS Act the answer to the US microchip crisis? Chicago Policy Review. https://chicagopolicyreview.org/2022/03/07/is-the-chips-act-the-answer-to-the-us-microchip-crisis/

Woodcock, J. (2019). Marx at the arcade: Consoles, controllers, and class struggle. Haymarket Books.

Xia, L., Robock, A., Scherrer, K., Harrison, C. S., Bodirsky, B. L., Weindl, I., Jägermeyr, J., Bardeen, C. G., Toon, O. B., & Heneghan, R. (2022). Global food insecurity and famine from reduced crop, marine fishery and livestock production due to climate disruption from nuclear war soot injection. Nature Food, 3(8), 586–596. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-022-00573-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-022-00573-0

Xu, Z., Lin, F., Davis, S., & Ness, I. (2021). The political economy of US sanctions against China. In S. Davis & I. Ness (Eds.), Sanctions as war: Anti-imperialist per-spectives on American geo-economic strategy (pp. 306–320). Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004501201_019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004501201_019

Zeiler, X., & Mukherjee, S. (2021). Video game development in India: A cultural and creative industry embracing regional cultural heritage(s). Games and Culture, 17(4), 509–527. https://doi.org/10.1177/15554120211045143 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/15554120211045143

Zetkin, C. (1923). Fascism (August 1923). (E. O’Callaghan, Trans.). Labour Monthly.

Zhao, J. (2021). The political economy of the U.S.-China technology war. Monthly Review, 73(3). https://monthlyreview.org/2021/07/01/the-political-economy-of-the-u-s-china-technology-war/

Zwart, D. de. (2022, March 25). Sustainability in video games: How green is gaming? Dundle. https://dundle.com/magazine/en/sustainability-video-games-how-green-is-next-gen-gaming/




How to Cite

Hammar, E. L., Jong, C. . and Despland-Lichtert, J. (2023) “Time to stop playing: No game studies on a dead planet”, Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, 14(1), pp. 31–54. doi: 10.7557/23.7109.